Global oil production has continued to rise over the years. Here’s a look at the top 10 oil-producing countries.
The output control deal made between the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and 11 of the world’s top oil producers expired in 2020. When production rose dramatically in April of that year after Russia’s decision not to approve further cuts proposed by Saudi Arabia, the de facto OPEC leader responded by offering its product at a discount and producing more oil.
In an oversupplied market suffering from a lack of demand, oil prices turned negative, shocking market participants. Finally, with some pressure from the US, Russia and OPEC finally came to an agreement to cut production by 9.7 million barrels per day (bpd) — the single largest output decrease in history.
Oil demand returned In 2021 as COVID-19 lockdowns eased worldwide, pushing prices higher, and once Russia’s aggressive war against Ukraine set in the following year, oil prices skyrocketed. Slowing economic activity brought on by rising interest rates and fears of recession have weighed on oil prices in 2023. In June, OPEC members reached an agreement to significantly cut oil out output in July and extend a broader deal to limit supply into 2024. However, these supply concerns have been eclipsed by slowing demand forecasts for China.
Given these and other recent market events, many investors are curious to know which countries produce the most oil. Read on for a look at the top 10 oil-producing countries in 2022, the most current data at time of publication. Statistics are from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and include total production of petroleum and other liquids.
1. United States
Production: 20,213,000 bpd
Number one on this list of the top 10 oil-producing countries is the US. Its output increased by 1,232,000 bpd from its 2021 level to reach 20,213,000 bpd in 2022. The US has been described as a swing producer because its production fluctuates alongside market prices. Texas leads the way as the biggest oil-producing state in the nation, with output nearly four times as high as the second biggest oil-producing state, New Mexico.
In addition to being a major oil producer, the US is a big consumer of oil. In 2021, the US consumed a total of 7.4 billion barrels of petroleum products — that’s an average of about 20.28 million bpd.
2. Saudi Arabia
Production: 12,144,000 bpd
Saudi Arabia’s oil output came in at 12,144,000 bpd in 2022. The country possesses 17 percent of the world’s proven petroleum reserves and is the largest petroleum exporter. Its oil and gas sector accounts for around 50 percent of its gross domestic product and about 85 percent of its export earnings.
As mentioned, Saudi Arabia played a key role in OPEC’s decision to curb oil output back in 2020 as well as in 2023. In 2022, the country’s US relations soured to the point that the country was unwilling to increase production in an effort to bring down rising gasoline prices. This year, Saudi Arabia has agreed to cut its production by 1 million bpd starting in July.
Production: 10,938,000 bpd
Prior to production cuts in 2020, Russian oil output had spent a number of years rising; it came in at 10,938,000 bpd in 2022. Most of Russia’s reserves are located in West Siberia, between the Ural Mountains and the Central Siberian Plateau, as well as in the Urals-Volga region, extending into the Caspian Sea.
As the third largest oil-producing nation, Russia accounts for 10 percent of global output. In response to Russia’s war in Ukraine, Canada, the US, the UK and Australia have banned imports of Russian oil, representing about 13 percent of Russia’s exports.
In March 2022, the International Energy Agency (IEA) warned that Russia could be forced to cut 30 percent of its crude oil production, resulting in a serious global oil supply crisis. “The implications of a potential loss of Russian oil exports to global markets cannot be understated,” the IEA stated. However, it seems that in 2023 Russia’s oil export levels have rebounded to pre-war levels with heavy demand from China and India.
Production: 5,694,000 bpd
Next on this list of the top 10 oil-producing countries is Canada. The country’s annual oil production rose to 5,694,000 bpd in 2022, up from 2021’s output levels of 5,537,000 bpd.
Nearly all of Canada’s proven oil reserves are located in Alberta, and according to the province’s government, 97 percent of oil reserves there are in the form of oil sands. Energy exports to the US account for the vast majority of Canada’s total energy exports. However, because of economic and political considerations, Canada is developing ways to diversify its trading partners, especially by expanding ties with emerging markets in Asia.
Canada has been embroiled in a national debate over pipelines. In 2018, the federal government purchased the Kinder Morgan (NYSE:KMI) Trans Mountain pipeline for C$4.5 billion to ensure Canadian crude reaches market ports. At the time, an expansion was estimated to cost another C$7.4 billion, after which the government would sell the project back to the private sector. In February 2020, a new cost estimate for the project sent the C$7.4 billion figure to C$12.6 billion; that figure was adjusted again in February 2022, nearly doubling to C$21.4 billion; and again in March 2023, to C$30.9 billion.
Production: 5,119,000 bpd
China’s annual oil output was 5,119,000 bpd in 2022. The nation is the world’s second largest consumer of oil and moved from being the second largest net importer of oil to the largest in 2014.
China is the world’s most populous country and has a rapidly growing economy, factors that have driven its high overall energy demand. In fact, the Asian country is the top consumer of oil, with 55 percent of its imports coming from OPEC member countries.
According to Reuters, during the first few months of 2022, China’s crude oil refineries cut production due to COVID-19 lockdowns as the virus continues to challenge the government’s zero-COVID strategy, although it has since loosened those protocols. In May 2023, the country’s oil refineries increased production by 15.4 percent from last year’s output for the month.
Production: 4,553,000 bpd
In 2017, despite increasing its output, Iraq got bumped from its position as the sixth largest oil-producing country. Output in 2018 helped the Middle Eastern nation regain its sixth spot position.
The country has seen its oil production decrease significantly in recent years, falling from 4,788,000 bpd in 2019 to 4,149,000 bpd in 2021. However, Iraq managed to increase its oil production in 2022 by 404,000 bpd over the previous year to total 4,553,000 bpd. It holds the world’s fifth largest proven oil reserves at 145 billion barrels; that represents 8.4 percent of global reserves.
7. United Arab Emirates
Production: 4,237,000 bpd
The United Arab Emirates is an OPEC member, and has ranked among the world’s top 10 oil-producing countries for decades. In 2022, it saw a significant year-on-year increase in production of 451,000 bpd, with oil output rising to 4,237,000 bpd.
The country holds the world’s eighth largest proven oil reserves at 98 billion barrels, with most of those reserves located in Abu Dhabi. The United Arab Emirates accounts for 5.6 percent of global total reserves.
Production: 3,803,000 bpd
Brazil’s oil production rose slightly from 3,689,000 bpd in 2021 to 3,803,000 bpd in 2022. According to the EIA, total primary energy consumption in Brazil has nearly doubled in the past decade because of sustained economic growth. The largest share of Brazil’s total energy consumption is oil and other liquid fuels, followed by hydroelectricity and natural gas.
For 2023, Brazil is reportedly on track to increase its annual oil production level yet again, and its National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels is projecting the country will become the world’s fourth largest oil producer in the coming years.
Production: 3,661,000 bpd
Iran’s oil output increased dramatically from 2,990,000 bpd in 2020 to 3,661,000 bpd in 2022. According to the EIA, Iran holds the world’s third largest proven oil reserves, as well as the world’s second largest natural gas reserves. Despite its abundant reserves, Iran’s oil production is is still far below the 4,779,000 bpd produced back in 2017.
US sanctions and regional disputes have all weighed on Iran’s energy production sector. In 2021, China signed a 25 year trade and security agreement with Iran, and has called on the US to drop its sanctions.
Production: 3,022,000 bpd
Last on this list of the top 10 oil-producing countries is Kuwait, another country whose output increased from its 2021 level. After dropping to 2,717,000 bpd in 2021, the nation’s oil production has nearly rebounded to its 2018 levels. That year, production came in at 3,059,000 bpd.
Kuwait’s oil and gas sector accounts for about 60 percent of the country’s GDP, and an even larger share of its export revenues at around 95 percent.